so that, so…that 和 such…that 用法归纳

发布时间:2022-05-21T10:02:20 英语语法

so that, so…that such…that 用法归纳

在学习so that 和so…that从句时,有相当一部分同学认为:so that 是用来构成目的状语从句的,而so…that则是用来构成结果状语从句的。其实,情况并不是这样。

so that同样可以用来引导结果状语从句,无论是否有副词作状语或形容词作表语,这就要得从意义上和so that从句的结构上来考虑,表目的的so that状语从句中通常情况下都含有一个情态动词。试比较:

He hurried to the station so that he could catch the early bus. 他匆匆忙忙赶到车站,为的是能搭上早班车。(表目的)

= He got to the station hurriedly so that he could catch the early bus.

He hurried to the station so that he caught the early bus. 他匆匆忙忙赶到车站,结果搭上了早班车。(表结果)

= He got to the station hurriedly so that he caught the early bus.

= He got to the station so hurriedly that he caught the early bus.

但若副词或形容词是放在so …that之间,就算that从句中含有情态动词也只能表示结果。

The boy was so stupid that he couldn’t work out the maths problem. 这个男孩很笨,所以他解不出这道数学题。

注: 表目的的so that 从句可以用in order that 替换;若主句和从句的主语一致的时候还可以用so as to或in order to将其转换为简单句。如:

I got up early so that I could be in time for the morning exercises.

→ I got up early in order that I could be in time for the morning exercises.

→ I got up early so as to / in order to be in time for the morning exercises.

有时为了加强语气,in order that 从句或in order to短语还可以放到句首,但so that 和so as to却不行。如:

In order that I could be in time for the morning exercises, I got up early.

In order to be in time for the morning exercises, I got up early.

当so…that(或so that)结构的主句中有副词作状语或形容词作表语时,必须用so + adv. / adj. + as to才可以将其转换为简单句来表示结果,否则是表示目的。试比较:

I spoke so loud as to be heard by everyone. 我讲得声音很大,结果大家都听清楚了。(表结果)

I spoke loud so as to be heard by everyone. 我很大声地讲,是为了大家能都听清楚。(表目的)

在so + adv. / adj. + that所构成的结果状语从句中,人们常常把so + adv. / adj. 移到句首并将谓语动词倒装来表示强调。例如:

So hard did the boy study that he passed the exam.

So clever is the boy that he can answer the question.

人们在口语中常省去so…that的that,也有人省去so而保留that。如:

She was so excited (that) she could hardly fall asleep.

She was (so) excited that she could hardly fall asleep.

在书写中省去that时,最好加上逗号,把句子的两个部分隔开。例如:

She was so excited, she could hardly fall asleep.

so…that和such…that都可以构成结果从句,所不同的是so…that之间接形容词或副词,而  such…that之间接名词。一般情况下,即使名词前有形容词修饰也不能换用so…that。例如:

The boy is so clever that everyone likes him.

The boy is such a fool that he can’t understand it.

Titanic is such a moving film that all of us want to see it.

The teacher gave the children such wonderful picture books that they got wild with joy.

 

注: 当such…that之间用“不定冠词 + 形容词 + 单数名词”时,可以用so…that替换,但得将不定冠词和形容词颠倒位置。例如:

That was such an important party that I had to take part in it.

→ That was so important a party that I had to take part in it.

当such…that之间的可数名词前用many或few修饰,不可数名词前用much或little修饰时,只能用so…that构成结果从句。例如:

I’ve got so few apples that I cannot divide them among the children.

I have so much homework to do that I can’t go to the cinema with you.

当little表示“小”而不是“少”的意思时,仍然用such…that. 试比较:

They are such little children that they cannot do the work well.  这些孩子太小,他们做不好这项工作。

I have so little money that I can’t buy the computer. 我的钱太少买不起这部电脑。

such…that万不可与such…as混用。such…that中的that是连词,用来引导状语从句,在从句中不充当任何成分;而such…as中的as是关系代词,用来引导定语从句并在从句中担当主语、宾语或表语。试比较:

Zhangjiajie is such a marvelous place that everyone wants to visit it. 张家界是如此神奇的地方,人人都想去游玩。(that引导状语从句)

Zhangjiajie is such a marvelous place as everyone wants to visit. 张家界是如此一个人人都想去游玩的神奇的地方。(as引导定语从句并作宾语)