英语语法详解:结果状语从句(五个方面)

发布时间:2022-05-21T10:02:11 英语语法

英语语法详解:结果状语从句(五个方面)

 

一、引导结果状语从句的从属连词

主要的有so that, so…that, such…that等:

He studied hard so that he passed the exam. 他学习用功,所以考试通过了。

He was so angry that he couldn’t speak. 他气得话都说不出来。

He shut the window with such force that the glass broke. 他关窗子用力很大,结果玻璃震破了。

【注】so…that和such…that中的that有时(尤其在口语中)可省略:

I am so busy I have no time to write a letter. 我很忙,连写信的时间都没有。

There was such a lot of rain (that) we couldn’t go out. 雨那么大,我们没法出去。

二、so…that such…that 的用法比较

从用法上看,so后应接形容词或副词,而such后接名词(参见以上例句)。但有时“so+形容词”后还可接一个名词,且这个名词总是带不定冠词的单数可数名词(不能是复数名词或不可数名词):

正:He is so clever a child that we all like him. 这小孩很聪明,我们都喜欢他。

正:They are such clever children that we all like them. 这些孩子很聪明,我们都很喜欢。

误:They are so clever children that we all like them.

此时的so…that结构可与such…that结构转换:

It’s such an interesting film that we all want to see it. 这电影很有趣,我们都想看。

It’s so interesting a film that we all want to see it. 这电影很有趣,我们都想看。

【注】在much, many, little, few 这四个词前总是用so而不用such:

He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了许多跤,结果全身都是伤。

He earns so little money that he can hardly feed his family. 他赚的钱很少几乎不能养家糊口。

三、结果状语从句与不定式短语的转换

由so that和so…that引导的结果状语从句有时可与表结果的so as to和so…as to引出的不定式短语转换:

He arrived late so that he missed the train. / He arrived late so as to miss the train. 他到得很迟,结果未赶上火车。

He wrote so carefully that he made no mistakes. / He wrote so carefully as to make no mistakes. 他写得很仔细,所以没有出错。

四、so that引导目状语和结果状语的区别

(1)含义上的区别:引导目的状语从句时表示的是一种意欲或可能性,引导结果从句时表示的是一种事实。

(2) 形式上的区别:引导目的从句之前不用逗号(说话时也不停顿),而结果从句之前则通常有逗号(说话时常有停顿);有时引导结果状语从句时其前也可以没有逗号,此时可看从句中是否有 can / could, may / might, will /would 以及should等情态动词,如果没有,则多半是结果从句。比较:

We’ve come early so that the meeting can begin promptly. 我们来得很早,以便可以马上开会。(so that 引导目的状语从句)

We are all here now, so that the meeting can begin at last. 我们现在都到齐了,终于能开会了。 (so that 引导结果状语从句)

I am going to the lecture early so that I’ll get a good seat. 我想早点去听演讲,以便找个好座位。(so that 引导目的状语从句)

I went to the lecture early so that I got a good seat. 我去听演讲去得很早,所以找个好座位。(so that 引导结果状语从句)

另外,so that引导目的从句时有时可放在主句之前,而引导结果从句时却不能:

正:So that he could buy a new car, he saved a lot of money. 他节省了一大笔钱,以便能买辆新车。(引导目的状语从句)

误:So that I could hardly stand, I was tired.(引导结果状语从句不能置于句首,可改为I was tired so that I could hardly stand. 我很累,几乎站不稳了。)

五、so…thatsuch…that有时不引导结果状语句

so…that和such…that可以引导结果状语从句,但并不是说它们引导的从句就一定是结果状语。请看以下句子:

I’m so happy that you could visit us. 我很高兴你能来看望我们。(其中的so用于加强语气,相当于very)

It’s such a great pleasure that you are here. 你在这里是非常令人高兴的事。(其中的that引导的是主语从句,句首的it为形式主语)