英语特殊疑问句用法要点

发布时间:2022-04-29T21:29:35 英语语法

英语特殊疑问句用法要点

 

1. 基本用法与结构

特殊疑问句是由疑问词提问的句子。疑问词包括疑问代词(如what, who, which, whose等)和疑问副词(如when, where, why, how等)。其基本结构是“疑问词+一般疑问句”:

What are you doing? 你在做什么?

Which child knows the answer? 哪个孩子知道答案?

Whose bicycle is this? 这是谁的自行车?

When can you come? 你什么时候能来?

Where are you from? 你从什么地方来?

Why are your clothes so dirty? 你的衣服为什么这么脏?

How shall I answer her? 我怎样回答她?

【注】若疑问词用作句子主语,则为陈述句词序:

Who gave you that book? 谁给你的那本书?

What made her cry so badly? 是什么使她哭得这样伤心?

2. 如何就划线部分提问

就划线部分提问的基本方法是:先根据划线部分词语的意思和句法功能确定用什么疑问词,然后将原句变为一般疑问句跟在疑问词的后面即可(注意去掉划线部分)。请看实例:

He goes to school by bike.

→How does he go to school? 他怎么去上学?

Jim went home yesterday.

→When did Jim go home? 吉姆什么时候回家的?

He was born in Paris.

→Where was he born? 他出生在什么地方?

He can’t come because he is ill.

→Why can’t he come? 他为什么不能来?

This is Mary’s wallet.

→Whose wallet is this? 这是谁的钱包?

He bought a dictionary yesterday.

→What did he buy yesterday? 他昨天买了什么?

若划线部分是句子主语,则只要用疑问词代替划线部分即可:

Jack stole our money.

→Who stole our money? 谁偷了我们的钱?

若划线部分包含谓语动词,则应用do的适当形式代替划线部分:

He bought a dictionary yesterday.

→What did he do yesterday? 他昨天做了什么?

She was writing letters last night.

→What was she doing last night? 她昨晚在做什么?

He has sold his house.

→What has he done? 他做了什么?

3. 常用疑问词的用法与区别

(1) 疑问代词与疑问副词的区别。疑问代词主要用作主语或宾语,疑问副词主要用作状语。

(2) who 与 whom的区别。参见本书“代词”一章。

(3) what, which, who的区别。参见本书“代词”一章。

(4) how long, how often, how soon的区别。三者均可译为“多久”,但有区别:

① how long 指多长时间,主要用来对一段时间(如three days等)提问:

—How long did he stay here? 他在这儿呆了多久?

—About two hours. 大约两小时。

② how often 指每隔多久,主要用来对频度副词或状语(如once a week等)提问:

—How often does he come here? 他(每隔)多久来一次?

—Once a month. 每月一次。

③ how soon 指再过多久,主要用来对表示将来的一段时间(如:in an hour等)提问:

—How soon will he be back? 他要多久才回来?

—In an hour. 1小时以后。

(5) how many 与how much的区别。两者均表示“多少”,但how many 指数,其后接可数名词复数,how much 指量,其后接不可数名词:

How many children does he have? 他有几个孩子?

How much time did you spend on it? 做此事你花了多少时间?

有时其后不接词,how many 依然指数(可数),how much 依然指量(不可数):

We have plenty of novels. How many do you want? 我们有很多小说。你要多少(本)?

You need some money? How much do you want? 你需要钱? 要多少?

另外,how much还可用来表示计算或询问价钱、重量、程度等:(hxen.com)

How much is four times five? 4 乘以 5 等于多少?

How much is the coat? 这件上衣多少钱?

How much do you like her?你有多喜欢她?

How much does it weigh? 这东西有多重?

4. 两点重要说明

(1) 特殊疑问句不能用yes和no来回答。

(2) 有时两个疑问句可以叠用:

When and where was he born? 他出生于何时何地?

When and how did you find it? 你是在什么时候怎么找到它的?