发布时间:2022-04-29T12:25:20 英语语法



在let, make, have等使役动词后用作宾语补足语的不定式必须省略to。如:

My mother wouldn’t let me go to the film. 我妈妈不会让我去看电影的。

I don’t like milk, but mother made me drink it. 我不喜欢牛奶,可是母亲强迫我喝。

I would have him wait for me at the gate of the park. 我要他在公园门口等我。


1. 当使役动词用于被动语态时,要补上在主动语态中省略的to(主要是指make,let和have很少用于被动语态)。

2. force, oblige等虽然也表示“使”,但它们后用作宾语补足语的不定式必须带to。如:

He forced me to go with them. 他迫使我同他们一起去。

The police obliged him to leave. 警方强迫他离开。



I watched her get into the car. 我看着她上了车。

I saw the woman enter a bank. 我看见这个女人进了一家银行。

We often hear her sing this song. 我们经常听到她唱这首歌。

Did you notice her leave the house? 她离开屋子你注意到了吗?


1. 这里所说的感觉动词主要包括see, hear, observe, notice, feel, watch等。但是它们用于被动语态时,其后的不定式必须带to。如:

The woman was seen to enter a bank. 有人看见这个女人进了一家银行。

但是,用于以上句型的动词notice 和watch通常不用于被动语态。

2. 类似地,动词look at和listen to后用作宾语补足语的不定式也不带to。如:

We listened to the old man tell his story. 我们听这位老人讲述他的经历。

3. 若动词feel后用作宾语补足语的不定式为 to be,则要带 to(其他情况不带 to)。如:

They felt the plan to be unwise. 他们认为这个计划不明智。

4. 若不定式为完成式,通常应带 to。如:

I noticed her to have come early. 我注意到她来得很早。



Can I help (to) carry this heavy box? 我可以帮忙扛这个重箱子吗?

Mother helped me (to) do my homework. 妈妈帮助我做作业。


1. 当 help 之后接一个较长的名词词组作宾语或当其中的不定式所表示的动作主语不直接参加时,不定式通常带to。如:

Help the little boys at the back of the hall to carry the chairs out. 请帮大厅后面那些小男孩把椅子搬出去。

These tablets will help you to sleep. 这些药片将对你的睡眠有帮助。

2. 在当help用于被动语态时,不定式前的to不能省略。如:

The boy was helped by a woman to collect his scattered coins. 那男孩由一个妇女帮他捡拾散乱一地的钱币。

四、why (not)…后省略to的情况

在why (not)…?之后的不定式不能带to。如:

Why go with him? 为什么要同他一起去?

Why not ask the teacher? 为什么不去问问老师?

Why not try to expand your story into a novel? 你怎么不把你的故事扩展成小说呢?



1. 若 know 为现在式,该结构中的不定式只限于 to be,且其中的to不能省略。如:

I know him to be ill. 我知道他病了。

We knew her to be honest. 我们知道她是诚实的。

2. 若know为完成式或过去式,则该结构中的不定式可以用除 to be外的其他动词,且此时其中的to可以省留。如:

I never knew him (to) do such a thing. 我从未听说他会干那种事。

We’ve never known him (to) tell a lie. 我们从未听说他撒过谎。

I’ve never known it (to) snow in July before. 我从未听说过有七月下雪的事。


六、介词except / but后省略to的情况

用作介词except, but宾语的不定式有时带to,有时不带to。其大致原则是:若其前出现了动词 do,其后的不定式通常不带 to;若其前没有出现动词 do,则其后的不定式通常带 to。如:

I had no choice but to wait. 除了等,我没有别的选择。

He wanted nothing but to stay there. 他只想留在那儿。

It had no effect except to make him angry. 除惹他生气外,没产生任何效果。

She can do everything except cook. 除了做饭之外她什么都会。



All you do now is (to) complete the form. 你现在要做的只是把这张表填好。

The only thing to do now is (to) go on. 前进是现在唯一的出路。

What I’ll do is (to) tell her the truth. 我要做的就是告诉她真相。



He told me to stay there and wait for him. 他叫我在那儿等他。

I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知该怎么想怎么说。

It is easier to persuade people than (to) force them. 说服人容易,强迫人难。


To try and fail is better than not to try at all. 尝试而失败总比不尝试好。



I shall go if I want to. 如果我想去就去。

“Don’t be late.” “I’ll try not to.” “不要来晚了。”“我尽量不来晚。”

Don’t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。


1. 若被省略的不定式为to be短语,则通常应保留to be。如:

He is not the man he used to be. 他已不是原来的那个样子了。

2. 有时省略不定式时,同时也可省略to。如:

She may go if she likes (to). 她想去就可以去。