谈谈“动词+宾语+不定式”结构

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:52 英语语法

谈谈“动词+宾语+不定式”结构  

一、常用用于“动词+宾语+不定式”结构的动词  

汉语常说“帮助某人做某事”“麻烦某人做某事”“警告某人做某事”等,这类表达归纳成英语句型通常就是“动词+宾语+不定式”。但值得注意的是,并不是所有动词都可用于这类句型的,比较常用的可用于该结构的动词advise, allow, ask, bear, beg, cause, command, desire, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, hate, help, intend, invite, leave, like, mean, need, oblige, order, permit, persuade, prefer, request, remind, teach, tell, trouble, want, warn, wish等。如:

The doctor advised me to take a complete rest. 医生建议我完全休息。

Her boss doesn’t allow her to use the telephone. 她的老板不允许她使用电话。

He asked us to wait for him at the gate. 他叫我们在门口等他。

Don’t bother him to do it for you.别去麻烦他去为你做这事。

The policeman commanded him to stop. 警察命令他停下。

He desires her to marry him. 他希望她能嫁给他。

My wife encouraged me to apply for the job. 我妻子鼓励我申请这项工作。

The teacher forbids the students to read such books. 老师不准学生看那样的书。

They forced her to sign the paper. 他们强迫她在文件上签字。

We invited him to take part in the celebration. 我们邀请他一起参加庆祝会。

He persuaded his wife to change her mind. 他说服他妻子改变了主意。

He reminded me to read the book. 他提醒我要看看这本书。

The doctor warned him not to eat oily food after the operation. 医生告诫他手术后不要吃油腻食物。  

   

二、使用“动词+宾语+不定式”结构的易错提醒  

我们在汉语中经常听人说“希望你能帮帮我”“希望他能早点来”“希望大家照顾好自己的行李”等,如果要对这类表达归纳成一个句型,就是“希望某人做某事”。“希望”在英语中一个最常用的词就是hope,所以你就想到了hope sb to do sth这一结构——非常遗憾,你错了!因为动词hope习惯上不用于“动词+宾语+不定式”结构。在许多情况下,可用于“动词+某人做某事”的动词,却不能用于“动词+宾语+不定式”结构。如:

◎我担心他会拒绝我们。

误:I fear him to refuse us.

正:I fear that he will refuse us.

汉语可说“担心某人做某事”,但英语习惯上不说 fear sb to do sth;遇此情况,可在fear后接宾语从句。

◎请原谅我这么早给你打电话。

误:Forgive me to ring you up so early.

正:Forgive my [me] ringing you up so early.

汉语可说“原谅某人做某事”,但英语不说forgive sb to do sth;forgive所用的常用结构是forgive doing sth,forgive sb doing sth,forgive sb’s doing sth等。注:与之同义的excuse也具有类似用法。

◎他拒绝我用他的电脑。

误:He refused me to use his computer.

正:He refused to let me use his computer.

汉语可说“拒绝某人做某事”,但英语不说 refuse sb to do sth;从汉语角度来看,“拒绝某人做某事”的实际意义是“拒绝让某人做某事”,所以说refuse to let sb do sth则是完全可以的。

◎他妻子建议他戒烟。

误:His wife suggested him to give up smoking.

正:His wife suggested that he (should) give up smoking.

汉语可说“建议某人做某事”,但英语不说 suggest sb to do sth;遇此情况可考虑在suggest后that从句(注意谓语用should+动词原形这样的虚拟语气形式)。注:与之同义的propose也具有类似用法,但是如果改用advise则完全可以,所以上面的句子也可改为:His wife advised him to give up smoking.

◎他坚持要我留在那儿。

误:He insisted me to stay there.

正:He insisted on my staying there.

正:He insisted that I (should) stay there.

汉语可说“坚持要某人做某事”,但英语不说insist sb to do sth;insist习惯上不能直接跟名词或代词作宾语,所以也就不能用于“动词+宾语+不定式”结构。遇此情况,可改用insist on doing sth, insist on sb’s doing sth, insist that…等。

◎我已安排他去参加会议。

误:I’ve arranged him to attend the meeting.

正:I’ve arranged for him to attend the meeting.

汉语可说“安排某人做某事”,但英语不说 arrange sb to do sth;因为arrange用作及物动词表示“安排”时,其后通常接事情,而不接具体的人或东西;若接具体的人或东西则需后接介词for。

◎他要求我把一切都告诉他。

误:He demanded me to tell him everything.

正:He demanded of us to tell him everything.

正:He demanded that I should tell him everything.

汉语可说“要求某人做某事”,但英语不说 demand sb to do sth;因为动词demand习惯上不直接跟“人”作宾语,遇此情况可在其后加介词of,当然也可后接that 从句(注意用虚拟语气)。

◎感谢你的邀请。

误:Thank you to invite me.

正:Thank you for inviting me.

汉语可说“感谢某人做某事”,但英语不说 thank sb to do sth;用于表示类似意思的常用句型是thank sb for doing sth。

◎我们祝贺他通过了考试。

误:We congratulated him to have passed the examination.

正:We congratulated him on having passed the examination.

汉语可说“祝贺某人做某事”,但英语不说 congratulate sb to do sth;用于表示类似意思的常用句型是congratulate sb on doing sth。

◎什么也阻不了我娶她为妻。

Nothing will prevent me to marry her.

Nothing will prevent my marrying her.

汉语可说“阻止某人做某事”,但英语不说 prevent sb to do sth;遇此情况可改用prevent sb’s doing sth或prevent sb from doing sth等。