英语中既接不定式也接动名词作宾语的动词归纳

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:48 英语语法

英语中既接不定式也接动名词作宾语的动词归纳

一、后接不定式或动名词且含义相同的动词

这类动词常见的有:like 喜欢 / love 喜欢 / hate 憎恨 / prefer 宁可 / begin 开始 / start 开始 / continue 继续 / can’t bear 不能忍受 / bother 麻烦 / intend 想要 / attempt 试图 / cease 停止,等。如:

I like designing [to design] my own dresses. 我喜欢为自己设计衣服。

When you begin to earn [earning] money, you can live a life of independence. 当你开始挣钱时,你就可以过独立的生活了。

You needn’t bother to come [coming] up. 你不必费心来了。

注意:当 like, love, hate, prefer 与 would, should 连用时,其后只能接不定式。如:

I’d love to have taken him round the factory, but I was too busy. 我本想带他去厂里看看,但我太忙了。

We mentioned that we would like to see the match and he arranged it for us immediately. 我们说起想看比赛,他马上为我们做了安排。

I should hate to be confined in an office all day. 我讨厌整天关在办公室里。

For various reasons I’d prefer not to meet him. 由于各种原因,我不愿见他。

另外,当 begin, start 本身为进行时态或后接 know, realize, understand 等静态动词时,其后的动词只能用不定式。如:

Scientists say they’re beginning to break through in the fight against cancer. 科学家们说,他们在防治癌症方面开始有所突破。

He began to like poetry when he was a boy. 他还是孩子时就开始喜欢诗歌了。

二、forget, remember, regret 后接不定式或动名词含义不同

动词 forget, remember, regret 等接不定式时,表示非谓语动词的动作发生于谓语动词的动作之后;接动名词作宾语时,表示非谓语动词的动作发生于谓语动词的动作之前。如:

Amid all the rush and confusion she forgot to say goodbye. 她在忙乱中忘了告辞。

I remembered giving the book to Li Lei, but he said I didn’t. 我记得我把书给李蕾了,但是他说我没有给。

You must remember to fetch Mr Lewis from the station tomorrow. 你必须记住明天到车站去接刘易斯先生。

We regret to say that we can’t accept your kind offer. 很抱歉我们不能接受你的友好提供。

I shall never forget seeing her for the first time. 我永远不会忘记第一次和她见面的情景。

I remember meeting her at a party once. 我记得在一次晚会上见过她一次。

I regret leaving school at 14—it was a big mistake. 我后悔14岁就辍学——这是个大错。

外,动词 forget, remember, regret 等接动名词、接动名词的完成式或不定式的完成式作宾语时,意义相同。如:

I remember posting [having posted] the letter. 我记得曾把那封信寄出去了。

I remember reading [having read] about the earthquake in the papers. 我记得在报纸上看到过关于这次地震的消息。

三、mean后接不定式或动名词含义不同

动词 mean 接不定式作宾语时,表示一种意图,意思是“打算做,想要做”;接动名词作宾语时,表示解释,意思是“意味着,意思是”。如:

Don’t be too hard on the boy; he didn’t mean to do it. 对这个小男孩不要太严厉了,他不是故意这么做的。

If we mean to catch the early bus, that means getting up before five. 要想赶早班车,我们就得在5点钟以前起床。

四、try后接不定式或动名词含义不同

try 接不定式作宾语时,表示一种决心,意思是“设法做,尽力做”;接动名词作宾语时,表示尝试,意思是“试着做”。如:

We try to make the trains run on time, but we can’t compete with the weather. 我们努力使火车运行准点,然而我们却抗争不过天气。

I tried reading the text without consulting my dictionary. 我试着不查词典来阅读课文。

五、need, require, want, deserve后接不定式或动名词语态不同

need, require, want, deserve 等表示“需要”的动词后另一动词作宾语时,该动词用不定式或动名词均可,但是其语态不同,即动名词用主动形式表示被动意义,而不定式则用被动形式表示被动意义。如:

The flowers need watering every day. = The flowers need to be watered every day. 花儿需要每天浇水。

注意:若 need, require, want后接动词为句子主语所发出的动作,则只能用不定式,不能用动名词。如:

I need to water the flowers every day. 我需要每天给花浇水。

六、can’t help后接不定式或动名词含义不同

can’t help 后接不定式时,意思是“不能帮忙做某事”;接动名词作宾语时,意思是“禁不住做某事,情不自禁做某事”。如:

We can’t help thinking he’s still alive. 我们总是认为他还活着。

I’m too busy, and I can’t help to do the work. 我太忙,不能帮忙做这工作。

说明:以下两个动词后接不定式或动名词(不一定是用作宾语)意思也不同:

go on to do sth  (做完某事后)继续做另一事 (不定式作状语)

go on doing  继续做一直在做的事 (动名词作状语)

stop to do sth  停下正在做的事以便去做另一事 (不定式作状语)

stop doing sth  停做正在做的事 (动名词作宾语)