习惯上要用不定式的五类典型用法

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:39 英语语法

习惯上要用不定式的五类典型用法

用法一  在 the first, the second, the third, the last 等之后通常用接不定式作定语。如:

You are the second to make that mistake. 你是第二个犯这错误的人。

He loves parties; he is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他喜欢参加社交聚会,总是头一个来,最后一个走。

用法二  the function作主语时,其后的表语通常用不定式。如:

The function of an adjective is to describe or add to the meaning of a noun. 形容词的作用就是修饰名词。

The function of the supermarket is to provide the housewife with all the necessities. 超级市场的功能是为家庭主妇提供一切生活必需用品。

用法三  用作目的状语时,英语习惯上要用不定式。如:

To pass the time, we played a game of cards. 为打发时间,我们玩起了纸牌。

To avoid the heat of the day we went out in the mornings. 为了避开最热的时候,我们每天上午出门。

用法四  有些动词后接另一动词作宾语时,习惯上要用不定式(不用动名词)。如:

Washing hands often is one of the effective ways to avoid being infected by disease(s). 勤洗手是避免疾病传染的有效方法之一。

In some parts of London, missing a bus means waiting for another hour. 在伦敦的很多地方,错过了一趟公共汽车就意味着再等一个小时。

其后习惯上接不定式作宾语(但不接动名词作宾语)的常见动词有afford, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, choose, claim, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, expect, hesitate, hope, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, threaten, wish等。

用法五  有些名词后面习惯上接不定式作定语,而不用 of doing sth。如:

His unwillingness to accept the job increased her doubt of his ability. 他不愿接受这份工作更使她怀疑他的能力。

It is the ability to do the job that matters not where you come from or what you are. 做这份工作需要的是能力,与你来自何方以及你是谁无关。

这类名词主要的有ability, agreement, appointment, anxiety, confidence, curiosity, decision, evidence, fortune, failure, freedom, need, nerve, obligation, order, patience, permission, permit, power, promise, refusal, strength, unwillingness, will, willingness, wish等。

【边学边练】用括号内所给动词的适当形形式填空:

1. Having spent nearly all our money, we couldn’t afford ________ (stay) at a hotel.

2. For a long time they walked without saying a word. Jim was the first ________ (break) the silence.

3. The function of advertising is ________ (create) a unique image for your company.

4. ________ (make) sure I did everything right, I bought a fat instruction book.

5. Thankfully, I managed ________ (get) through the game and the pain was worth it in the end.

6. I lived in London for many years, but I’ve never regretted my final decision ________ (come) back to China.

7. We are at your service. Don’t hesitate ________ (turn) to us if you have any further problems.

8. ________ (improve) the quality of our products, we asked for suggestions whoever had used the products.

【参考答案】1. to stay  2. to break  3. to create  4. To make  5. to get  6. to come  7. to turn  8. To improve