过去分词与不定式和现在分词作宾补的区别

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:36 英语语法

过去分词与不定式和现在分词作宾补的区别

过去分词作宾语补足语的最大特点是过去分词与其前用作宾语的词语具有被动关系。如:

I felt a great weight taken off my mind. 我感到如释重负。(a great weight与taken off构成被动关系,可理解为:A great weight was taken off my mind.)

I heard my name repeated several times. 我听见有人叫我的名字,叫了好几次。(my name与repeated构成被动关系,可理解为:My name was repeated several times.)

有些动词除可接过去分词作宾语补足语外,还可以接不定式和现在分词作宾语补足语,如果不定式和现在分词用被动式,那么它们也与其前用作宾语的词语具有被动关系,同学们知道它们的区别吗?

 

一、过去分词与不定式被动式作宾语补足语的区别

过去分词与不定式的被动式都可用作宾语补足语,其细微区别是:用过去分词更侧重完成意味,用不定式的被动式更侧重将来意味。但在多数情况下,这种区别并不明显。如:

We preferred the house (to be) painted white. 我们宁愿把房子漆成白色。

We want the work (to be) finished by Saturday. 我们要求这工作礼拜六以前完成。

但是,需要说明的是,并不是所有可以接过去分词作宾语补足语的动词都可以接不定式作宾补的,反过来,也不是所有可以接不定式作宾语补足语的动词都可以接过去分词作宾补的。比如:

They kept all the doors locked. 他们把所有的门都锁上了。(此句中的过去分词locked不能换成不定式的被动式to be locked)

I think you can have the book sent to me. 我想你可以让人把书寄给我。(此句中的过去分词sent不能换成to be sent)

The boss warned the box not to be taken out. 老板警告不要把箱子带出去。(此句中的not to be taken out不宜换成not taken out)

 

二、过去分词与现在分词被动式作宾语补足语的区别

过去分词与现在分词的被动式都可用作宾语补足语,其细微区别是:用过去分词更侧重完成意味,用现在分词的被动式更侧重进行或持续意味。比较:

I saw him taken away by the police. 我看到他被警察带走了。

I saw her being taken to the operating room. 我看见她被送到手术室。

再比较:

We found him greatly changed. 我们发现他变化很大。

She found herself being warmly welcomed everywhere. 她发现自己到处受到热烈的欢迎。

 

【边学边练】用所给动词的适当形式填空:

1. When we got there, we found the door ________ (lock).

2. I don’t want my daughter ________ (take) out after dark.

3. I have heard the boy ________ (criticize) many times.

4. I don’t speak good French, but I can make myself ________ (understand).

5. We’ll keep you ________ (inform) of what’s going on here.

参考答案:1. locked  2. taken  3. criticized  4. understood  5. informed