过去分词作定语和表语的三个易错点

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:29 英语语法

过去分词作定语和表语的三个易错点

错点一:未弄清某些过去分词作表语的特殊用法

【典例】When you’re ________ (do) with the book, just give it to Mary or Shelley or whoever.

【解析】有的同学认为,由于句子主语与动词do之间在此不是被动关系,所以此处的 do 不能用过去分词done,而应用现在分词doing。但实际上,此题答案正是要填过去分词done。其实 be done with是英语中的固定搭配,其中的done相当于finished。句意为:当你看完这本书的时候,就把它交给玛丽,或谢莉,或其他什么人。

【归纳】具有类似用法的还有finished, gone, parked等。如:

Shut off the computer when you’re finished. 你做完活后把计算机关掉。

I left my keys just there and next moment they were gone. 我把钥匙就落在那儿了,一会儿功夫就不见了。

Someone’s parked right across the entrance to the driveway. 有人把车直当当地停在了车道的入口处。

 

错点二:误以为过去分词作定语时一定表被动

【典例】Our customers fall into two main categories: ________ (retire) people and housewives.

【解析】有的同学认为,retire是不及物动词,不能用过去分词表示被动意义,故应填retiring。但实际上,本题答案是 retired,此处的过去分词retired并不表示被动意义,而是表示完成意义(指已退休的)。句意为:我们的顾客主要有两类:退休人员和家庭主妇。

【归纳】原则上说,过去分词作定语时表示被动意义,如spoken test(口试),a trained nurse(受过训练的护士)等。但也有少数过去分词作定语,不表示被动意义,而只表示完成意义,这类用法比较常见的有an escaped prisoner(逃犯),a retired teacher(退休教师),fallen leaves(落叶),the newly arrived visitors(新到的客人),a dated map(过时的地图),faded flowers(凋谢的花),the risen sun(升起了的太阳)等。

 

要点三:想当然地认单个过去分词作定语一定前置

【典例】Please complete the following sentences with the words ________ (give).

【分析】面对此题,许多同学的第一感觉是,此处不能填单个的分词,而应填一个非谓语动词短语,因为在这些同学看来,单个的分词作定语总是放在被修饰词语之前,只有短语作定语才会后置——这种认识基本上是对的,但不完全对。如本题应填过去分词given,而不是to be given(因为不定式表示将要发生的动作,不符合此处的语境)。

【归纳】单个的过去分词作定语时,既可前置,也可后置,其区别是:如果前置,则表明这个过去分词具有形容词的特征(有的已经转化为形容词);如果后置,则表明这个过去分词仍为动词(其动作意味很强,通常可转化为定语从句)。比较:

The work must be done within the given time. 工作必须在规定时间内完成。(given已转化为形容词,意思是“规定的”“特定的”)

Write a sentence beginning with a similar meaning to the one given. 用跟所给词意思相近的词开头写一个句子。(given是过去分词,相当于定语从句which is given)

【即学即练】用括号内所给词的适当形式填空:

1. The thief slipped back my wallet, but the money was _______ (go).

2. If the bank doesn’t loan us the money, we’re _______ (finish).

3. She moved backwards and forwards until she was _______ (park) close to the pavement.

4. Many _______ (date) expressions are being dropped from the new dictionary.

5. She gathered the _______ (fall) apples and carried them in her lap.

6. It’s arguable that _______ (retire) football players become good managers.

7. We have reason to believe that the _______ (escape) prisoner may be hiding in this house.

8. Our guest is a young student newly _______ (arrive) in England from New Zealand.

9. Complete the sentence with one of the adjectives _______ (provide) in the box.

10. The meeting lasted three hours, but we couldn’t agree on any of the problems _______ (discuss).

参考答案:1. gone  2. finished  3. parked  4. dated  5. fallen  6. retired  7. escaped  8. arrived  9. provided  10. discussed