动词-ing形式作定语和状语的高频错点

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:29 英语语法

动词-ing形式作定语和状语的高频错点

错点一:动词-ing形式作定语的常见错点

1. 混淆动词的-ing形式和-ed形式

【典型考题】While there are_______ (amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. (2014新课标卷I)

【考点分析】本题答案为amazing。由所填之词是用于修饰名词stories的,表示“故事”给人的感觉,故用动词的-ing形式。又如:

Her children show amazing responsibility for their ages. 她的孩子们显示出与其年龄不符的惊人的责任感。

【知识拓展】动词-ing形式和-ed形式均可用于名词前作定语,但有区别:动词的-ing形式表示事物给人的某种感觉,其意是指令人感到如何;动词的-ed形式表示人对事物感觉,其意是指人感到如何。值得说明的是,动词的-ed形式除用于说明人的感觉外,有也用于修饰voice, look, expression, appearance, manner, smile, belief, disbelief等,用以表示该名词逻辑主语的感觉。如:

She had a pleased look on her face. 她脸上有高兴的神情。

She shook her head in amazed disbelief. 她摇了摇头,感到惊愕与不信。

 

2. 错用不定式形式作前置定语

【典型考题】Uncertainty about the _______ (come) Presidential election depressed the stock market.

【考点分析】本题答案为coming。虽然此处是表示“即将到来的总统竞选”,但不能用不定式形式,因为不定式不能用作前置定语。本句意思是:对即将到来的总统竞选难以预料使得股市不景气。又如:

We have high hopes for the coming year. 我们对即将到来的一年寄以厚望。

Everyone rightly feared the coming war. 人人都担心战争即将爆发,这是理所当然的。

【知识拓展】虽然不定式通常可以表示即将要发生的动作,但主要限于作后置定语、状语等成分,而绝不能置于名词前作定语。比较:

I hope in coming years he will reflect on his decision. 我希望未来的几年里他会反省自己的决定。

I hope in years to come he will reflect on his decision. 我希望未来的几年里他会反省自己的决定。

 

错点二:动词-ing形式作状语的常见错点

1. 错用动词-ing形式作目的状语

【典型考题】_______ (keep) themselves awake they sat on the floor and told each other stories. 为了不至于睡着,他们坐在地板上轮流着讲故事。

【考点分析】本题答案为 To keep。当动词用作非谓语形式作目的状语时,通常要用不定式,而不用动词的-ing形式。又如:

To hide my fright I asked a question. 为了掩饰自己的恐惧,我问了个问题。

To avoid confusion, label each box clearly. 为了避免混乱,给每一个盒子贴上清楚的标签。

【知识拓展】在通常情况下,用非谓语动词表目的时,要用不定式,但有一个例外,就是当动词go后接climbing, cycling, exploring, dancing, fishing, hiking, hunting, rambling, riding, roller-skating, sailing, shooting, skating, skiing, surfing, swimming, walking, water-skiing等动词的-ing形式时,也属于表目的的用法,比较go fishing中的fishing可视为go的目的。如:

We might go camping this summer. 今年夏天我们可能去野营。

He likes to go climbing at weekends. 他喜欢在周末做登山运动。

They liked to go dancing every Saturday night. 他们喜欢每周六晚上去跳舞。

2. 混淆用作结果状语的-ing形式与不定式

【典型考题】After driving all night we got to Amy’s place, only _______ (discover) that she was away. 开了一整夜车到达埃米的住处,却发现她不在。

【考点分析】答案为to discover。“only+动词-ing形式”和“only+动词不定式”都可以用来表示结果。但有区别:后接现在分词往往表示一种自然的合乎逻辑的结果,而后接不定式往往表示一种出乎意料的或令人失望的结果。比较:

He went out of the room with few clothes on, only feeling rather cold. 他出去时衣穿得很少,渐渐地感到有些冷了。

I arrived at the shop only to find I’d left all my money at home. 我到商店却发现钱全放在家里。

■即时训练

Most people want to be happy, but few know how (1)________ (find) happiness. Money and success alone do not bring (2)________ (last) happiness.

Aristotle, a Greek (3)________ (think), said, “Happiness depends upon ourselves.” In other words, we make our own happiness. Here are a few (4)________ (suggest) to help you be happier.

The first secret of happiness is to enjoy the simple things in life. Too often, we spend so much time (5)________ (think) about the future — for example, getting into college or (6)________ (get) a good job — that we fail (7)________(enjoy) the present. You should enjoy life’s simple pleasures, such as reading a good book, (8)________ (listen) to your favorite music, or spending time with close friends. People who have several close friends often live happier and healthy lives.

Another secret to (9)________ (live) a happy life is to be active, and have hobbies where you forget your problems and time.

Finally, many people find happiness in (10)________(help) others. Studies show that people feel good when they spend their time helping others.

参考答案:1. to find  2. lasting  3. thinker  4. suggestion  5. thinking  6. getting  7. to enjoy  8. listening  9. living  10. helping