动词-ing形式作表语和宾补的三个要点

发布时间:2022-04-29T12:24:28 英语语法

动词-ing形式作表语和宾补的三个要点

考点一:考查动词-ing形式作表语的用法

【考题实例】The wife said to his husband, “Buying such a white elephant is simply _______ (waste) money.”

【考点分析】答案为wasting。在通常情况下,如果主语动词的-ing形式,则其表语通常也用-ing形式。又如:

Doing that was playing with fire. 这样做是玩火。

Talking to you is talking to the wall. 和你谈是对牛弹琴。

Denying this will be shutting one’s eyes to facts. 否认这一点就是睁眼不看事实。

【知识拓展】动词-ing形式作表语有两个明显特点:一是表示等价内容,即表示表语与主语“等价”,用以具体说明主语的具体内容,此时的动词-ing形式就是传统语法中的动名词;二是表示主语的性质或特征等,此时的动词-ing形式就是传统语法中的现在分词,但这样的-ing形式通常已转化为形容词。如:

My job is looking after the children. 我的工作就是照看这些孩子。(动名词looking after…作表语,表示主语my job的具体内容)

The work is difficult, but it is interesting. 这件工作虽然很难,但很有趣。(现在分词转化来的形容词interesting作表语,表示主语the work的特征)

 

考点二:考查动词-ing形式作宾补的用法

【考题实例】He arrived home just in time to see his brother _______ (take) away by the police.

【考点分析】答案为being taken。根据句子前半部分的He arrived home just in time to see(他到家时正好看到)可知,空格处所填动词是指一个动词正在进行或发生的瞬间,故宜用动词的-ing形式,再根据句末的 by the police(被警察)以及his brother与take之间的关系,可知此处的动词-ing形式应用被动式,句意为:他到家时正好看到他的兄弟被警察带走。又如:

He often came to watch the boats being loaded and unloaded. 他常常到这里来看轮船装货卸货。

I woke up to hear the bedroom door being opened slowly. 我醒过来,听见卧室的门慢慢地被推开。

【知识拓展】与动词-ing形式作表语类似,动词-ing形式作宾补也有两个明显特点:一是表示等价内容,即表示宾补与宾语“等价”,用以具体说明宾语的具体内容,此时的动词-ing形式就是传统语法中的动名词;二是表示宾语的性质、特征、正在进行的动作等,此时的动词-ing形式就是传统语法中的现在分词,这样的-ing形式若表示宾语的性质特点,则通常可视为形容词来理解,若表示宾语进行的动作,则不能视为形容词。如:

I call this robbing Peter to pay Paul. 我管这叫做拆东墙补西墙。(宾补robbing Peter to pay Paul为传统语法中的动名词,用以说明 this 的具体内容)

No one thought the film interesting. 没人认为这部电影很有趣。(宾补interesting为传统语法中的现在分词,其实已转化为形容词,它在此用以说明 film 的性质或特点)

The police observed the man entering the bank. 警方监视着那男子进入银行的情况。(宾补entering the bank为传统语法中的现在分词,用以说明 them man 当时正在进行的动作)

 

考点三:考查动词-ing形式作表语时与-ed形式的区别

【考题实例】Please stop making that noise—it’s getting ________ (annoy).

【考点分析】答案为annoying,不能填annoyed。本考点主要涉及动词-ing形式与-ed形式的用法区别。又如:

It was half seven; her mother would be annoyed because he was so late. 7点半了,他到得这么晚,她母亲一定会生气的。

It’s really annoying when a train is late and there’s no explanation. 火车误点而又不作任何解释,这很令人恼火。

【知识拓展】有的同学认为:-ed形容词只用于修饰人,-ing形容词只用于修饰事物,其实不一定。正确的理解是:-ed形容词指人的感觉,表示人感到如何;而-ing形容词则指事物给人的感觉,表示令人感到如何。比较:

The man was very much frightened. 这个人非常害怕。

The man was very much frightening. 这个人非常可怕。

Her son was very disappointed. 她的儿子非常失望。

Her son was very disappointing. 她的儿子非常令人失望。

-ed形容词除用于说明人的感觉外,有也用于修饰voice, look, expression, appearance, manner, smile等,用以表示该名词逻辑主语的感觉。如:

He gave her an astonished look. 他惊异地望了她一眼。

Mr. Knight gave a satisfied smile. 奈特先生露出满意的微笑。

His face wore a puzzled expression. 他脸上有一种困惑的表情。

She had a worried look on her face. 她脸上有一种忧虑的表情。

【即学即练】用括号内所给词的适当形式填空,每空限填一词:

1. Can we call this _______ (serve) mankind?

2. The real problem is _______ (get) to know the needs of the customers.

3. Her suggestion was _______ (have) our conversation in French.

4. My teacher is both gentle and _______ (encourage) towards me.

5. I don’t like making speeches in public; it’s so _______ (embarrass).

6. You must find it _______ (excite) working here.

7. She smelt something _______ (burn) and saw smoke rising.

8. He often came to watch the boats _______ _______ (load) and unloaded.

9. I woke up to hear the bedroom door _______ _______ (open) slowly.

10. If she catches you _______ (read) her diary, she’ll be furious.

参考答案:1. serving  2. getting  3. having  4. encouraging  5. embarrassing  6. exciting  7. burning  8. being loaded  9. being opened  10. reading