-ed形容词与-ing形容词的用法特点与规律

发布时间:2022-04-22T12:05:06 英语语法

-ed形容词与-ing形容词的用法特点与规律

英语中有些过去分词可以转化为形容词词,如amazed(吃惊的),amused(愉悦的),annoyed(气恼的),astonished(惊讶的),bored(厌烦的),confused(困惑的),disappointed(失望的),discouraged(泄气的),embarrassed(尴尬的,感到为难的),excited(兴奋的),frightened(受惊的),interested(感兴趣的),puzzled(困惑的),satisfied(满意的),shocked(令人震惊的,可怕的),surprised(惊讶的),worried(担心的)等。

另外,有些现在分词也可以转化为形容词词,如amazing(惊人的),amusing(有趣的),annoying(使人气恼的),astonishing(令人惊讶的),boring (厌烦的),confusing(令人困惑的),disappointing(令人失望的),discouraging(令人泄气的),embarrassing(令人为难的),exciting(令人兴奋的),frightening(令人恐惧的),interesting(有趣的),puzzling(令人困惑的),satisfying(令人满意的),shocking(令人震惊的,可怕的),surprising(令人惊讶的),worrying(令人担心的)等。

以上由分词转化来的形容词具有以下用法特点:

1. 作为形容词,它们既可用作表语,也可用作定语。尤其是-ed形容词,许多同学以为它们只能用作表语,其实只要语义需要,它们完全可以用作定语。如:

Interested members will meet at two. 感兴趣的会员两点钟碰头。

The frightened horse ran away from the fire. 惊恐的马从大火中跑开。

The exhausted runner was gasping for breath. 那人跑得疲惫已极,上气不接下气。

The tired children trailed along behind their parents. 孩子们累了,没精打采地跟在父母后面。

The excited children forgot to take the presents to the party. 孩子们兴奋得忘了把礼物带到聚会上了。

2. 有的同学认为:-ed形容词只用于修饰人,-ing形容词只用于修饰事物,其实不一定。正确的理解是:-ed形容词与-ing形容词的基本区别是:-ed形容词指人的感觉,表示人感到如何;而-ing形容词则指事物给人的感觉,表示令人感到如何。如:

The man was really annoyed. 这个人真的生气了。

The man was really annoying. 这个人真的让人很烦。

The man was very much frightened. 这个人非常害怕。

The man was very much frightening. 这个人非常可怕。

Everyone there was interested. 那儿的每个都很感兴趣。

Everyone there was interesting. 那儿的每个都很有趣。

Her son was very disappointed. 她的儿子非常失望。

Her son was very disappointing. 她的儿子非常令人失望。

-ed形容词除用于说明人的感觉外,有也用于修饰voice, look, expression, appearance, manner, smile等,用以表示该名词逻辑主语的感觉。如:

He gave her an astonished look. 他惊异地望了她一眼。

She had a pleased look on her face. 她脸上有高兴的神情。

Mr. Knight gave a satisfied smile. 奈特先生露出满意的微笑。

His face wore a puzzled expression. 他脸上有一种困惑的表情。

She had a worried look on her face. 她脸上有一种忧虑的表情。

He wore an embarrassed expression. 他脸上有一种尴尬的表情。

She had confused feelings about him. 她对他有一些混杂的情绪。

He didn’t notice the surprised look on her face. 他没注意到她脸上惊异的表情。

比较:

We noticed a disappointing look on his face. 我们注意到他脸上一种令人失望的表情。(“他”并不失望,但见了他表情的人会失望)

We noticed a disappointed look on his face. 我们注意到他脸上有一种失望的表情。(感到失望的是“他”,不是别人)