这些句子用错了介词

发布时间:2022-04-21T11:07:54 英语语法

这些句子用错了介词

错用介词的情况比较复杂,可能是受汉语意思的影响而出错,也可能是因弄不清搭配关系而出错,可能是混淆用法而出错,也可能是受相关结构的影响而出错,可能是忽略语境而出错,也可能是想当然地用错。如:

(1) 她昨天去了他的办公室拜访。

误:She called on his office yesterday.

正:She called at his office yesterday.

析:call 表示“拜访”时,要注意分清两种情况。一般说来,表示拜访某人,通常用call on sb,若表示去某地拜访,则通常用 call at a place。顺便说一句,有时可在 call 后加副词 in(即说成 call in on sb 或 call in at a place)。

(2) 他与一位护士订了婚。

误:He is engaged with a nurse.

正:He is engaged to a nurse.

析:be engaged to sb意为“与某人订婚”,注意不要按汉语习惯用介词 with。注:有时也可用 be engaged to do sth,如上面一句也可说成:He is engaged to marry a nurse. / He is engaged to be married to a nurse.

(3) 太阳从东方升起,从西方落下。

误:The sun rises from in the east and sets from the west.

正:The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

析:汉语说太阳“从”东方升起,实际上是太阳升起“在”东方,故用介词 in。

(4) 在警察的帮助下,我找回了我失去的东西。

误:Under the help of the police, I got back what I had lost.

正:With the help of the police, I got back what I had lost.

析:表示“在某人的帮助下”,英语用 with the help of sb,不要按汉语习惯用介词 under。

(5) 他在日本期间,参观过许多地方。

误:During he was in Japan, he visited many places.

正:During his stay in Japan, he visited many places.

正:While he was in Japan, he visited many places.

析:during是介词,不是连词,所以不用来引导句子。

(6) 吃点水果吧。

误:Help yourself with the fruit.

正:Help yourself to the fruit.

析:help oneself to sth 是口语中常用表达,意为“自行取用”或“随意使用”,注意其中用介词 to,不能用 with。

(7) 我们了解他的性格。

误:We are familiar to his character.

正:We are familiar with his character.

析:familiar(熟悉的)有以下两类用法须注意:一是表示某人熟悉某事物,此时通常只用作表语,且在其后连用介词 with; 二是表示某事物为某人所熟悉,此时可用作表语或定语,其后通常连用介词 to。比较:We are familiar with the saying. 我们熟悉这条格言。The saying is familiar to us. 这条格言我们熟悉。