确定关系代词前所用介词的七点注意

发布时间:2022-04-21T11:07:50 英语语法

确定关系代词前所用介词的七点注意

一注意动词与介词的搭配

1. The ladder on which I was standing began to slip. 我脚下的梯子开始向下滑动。

相关搭配:stand on 站在……上;stand on the ladder 站在梯子上。

2. He was respected by the people with whom he worked. 他受到与他一起工作的人的尊重。

相关搭配:work with 与……一起工作;work with the people 与这些人一起工作。

3. The person from whom the message came did not say his name. 送信的人没有道其姓名。

相关搭配:come from 来自……;come from the person 来自这个人。

4. He’s married to a singer of whom you may have heard. 他与一位歌唱家结了婚,你可能听说过这个人。

相关搭配:hear of 听说;hear of the singer 听说过这位歌唱家。

二注意形容词与介词的搭配

1. He brought the result with which the boss was satisfied. 他带来了结果,老板非常满意。

相关搭配:be satisfied with  对……满意;be satisfied with the result 对结果满意。

2. You find yourself married to someone with whom you’re not compatible. 你突然意识到自己和一个合不来的人结了婚。

相关搭配:be compatible with 与……能共处;be compatible with sb 与某人能共处。

【注】要特别注意in which case, at which point, at which time, by which time, during which time等这类常用表达。如:

The postman comes at 6:30 in the morning, at which time I am usually fast asleep. 邮递员早晨6点30分来,这个时候我通常还睡着大觉呢。

The speaker paused to examine his notes, at which point a loud crash was heard. 讲演者停下来查阅笔记,就在这时,听到了砰的一声巨响。

He may be busy, in which case I’ll call later. 他可能忙,若如此,我以后再来拜访。

We arrived at noon, by which time the demonstration was over. 我们是中午到的,这时游行已结束。

Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French. 汤姆上了四年大学,在此期间他学了法语。

三注意从句中的习惯表达

1. She was the only woman with whom he had ever been in love. 他爱过的只有这个女人。

相关搭配:be in love with 爱上;be in love with sb 爱上某人。

2. Her elder daughter, in whom she placed the greatest trust, failed to match her expectations. 她的长女,她对之无比信任,却辜负了她的期望。

相关搭配:place trust in 信任……;place trust in sb 信任某人。

3. This is something for which you must constantly be on the lookout. 这是你必须一直密切注意的事。

相关搭配:be on the lookout for 注意;be on the lookout for sth 注意某事。

四注意句子语境的需要

1. Then we arrived at a small temple, behind which was a great pool. 然后我们来到了一座小庙,其后有一个大水池。

相关搭配:behind the temple 在庙的后面。

2. Look, this is the tallest building, next to which is the new post office. 看,这是最高的建筑,它旁边就是新建的邮局。

相关搭配:next to the tallest building 在最高的建筑物旁边。
五注意相关的所属关系

1. He’s written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten. 他写了一本书,书名我忘了。

相关搭配:the name of ……的名字;the name of a book 一本书的书名。

2. It was an agreement the details of which could not be altered. 这是一项其细节不可更改的协定。

相关搭配:the details of ……的细节;the details of an agreement 某份协议的细节

六注意整体与部分的关系

1. The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd. 公共汽车大多数都已经挤满了人,它们被愤怒的人群包围着。

相关搭配:most of ……中的大多数,大多数的……;most of the buses 大多数的汽车。

2. He went with a group of people, few of whom were correctly equipped for such a climb.  他和一队人一起去了,其中没有几个人配有进行这样一次登山的适当装备。

相关搭配:few of ……当中的很少数,少数的……;few of the people 少数人。

3. The lorry crashed into a queue of people, several of whom had to have hospital treatment.  卡车冲进了一队人之中,其中有几个不得不住院治疗。

相关搭配:several of ……当中的几个,几个……;few of the people 几个人。

七注意同位语关系

1. Her sons, both of whom work abroad, ring her up every week.  她的两个儿子,都在国外工作,他们每周都给她打电话来。

用法说明:both of whom为her sons的同位语。

2. Both players, neither of whom reached the final, played well. 两名运动员都未进入决赛,但都表现得很好。

用法说明:neither of whom为both players的同位语。

【一点补充】

介词后接的关系代词通常为which和whom,但有时也可能是其他关系代词(如whose)。如:

He is the man from whose house the pictures were stolen. 他就是那个家里藏画被盗的人。

相关搭配:from the man’s house 从这个人的家里。

In 1980 he caught a serious illness from whose effects he still suffers. 1980年他患了到现在对他仍有影响的重病。

相关搭配:from the efforts of the illness 从这种病的影响中。

【小练一下】

01. The death of his son was an experience from ______ he never fully recovered.

A. that                      B. which                   C. what                    D. when

02. It’s the third in a sequence of three books, the first of ______ I really enjoyed.

A. them                    B. which                   C. that                      D. what

03. The picking of the fruit, for ______ work they receive no money, takes about a week.

A. which                  B. where                   C. that                      D. whose

04. He was educated at the local grammar school, after ______ he went on to Cambridge.

A. that                      B. which                   C. what                    D. where

05. She may have missed the train, in ______ case she won’t arrive for another hour.

A. that                      B. which                   C. what                    D. where

06. Your claim ought to succeed, in ______ case the damages will be substantial.

A. that                      B. this                      C. what                    D. which

07. We’ve been invited to Rachel and Jamie’s wedding—speaking of ______, did you know that they’re moving to Ealing?

A. whom                  B. when                    C. which                  D. what

08. She has written two novels, both of ______ have been made into television series.

A. that                      B. them                    C. what                    D. which
【答案与解析】

01. B。关系代词that不可用于介词后,故可排除A;what不是关系词,不能引导定语从句,故可排除C;when是关系副词,原则上也不用于介词后作宾语;from which在此表示“从……中”。

02. B。由于介词后不能接关系代词that,排除C;而them和what不是关系代词,不用于引导定语从句,也被排除。the first of which在此引导非限制性定语从句,其意为“其中的第一本”。

03. D。在所给定的四个关系代词中,只有which和whose能用于名词前作定语,故可排除B和C。而关系代词which和whose用于名词前作定语的区别是:which具有that或this的语义特征,而whose则具有one’s的语义特征。

04. B。关系代词that不可用于介词后,故可排除A;what不是关系词,不能引导定语从句,故可排除C;where是关系副词,原则上也不用于介词后作宾语(但from where是个例外);after which在此表示“此后”。又如:This I did at nine o’clock, after which I sat reading the paper. 九点钟时我做这事,之后我坐着看报。

05. B。关系代词that不可用于介词后,故可排除A;what不是关系词,不能引导定语从句,故可排除C;where是关系副词,原则上也不用于介词后作宾语(但from where是个例外);in which case相当于and in that case,其意为“如果那样的话”。又如:I may have to work late, in which case I will telephone. 我可能会晚点下班,那样我会打电话。

06. D。由于两个句子之间没有并列连词,所以不能选A或B;而what不是关系代词,不能引导定语从句,故也被排除。

07. C。当关系代词位于介词之后时,要用which(指事物)或whom(指人)。which在此指the wedding。

08. D。由于介词后不能接关系代词that,排除A;而them和what不是关系代词,不用于引导定语从句,也被排除。both of which在此引导非限制性定语从句,其意为“这两本小说都”。