抽象名词表示“……的人或事”

发布时间:2022-04-16T14:46:41 英语语法

抽象名词表示“……的人或事”

当抽象名词当表示“……的人或事”时,已转化为具体名词,此时是可数的。如:

■success和failure作为抽象名词,其意为“成功”和“失败”,不可数。如:

Failure is the mother of success. 失败是成功之母。

但转化为具体名词后,其意为“成功的人(事)”和“失败的人(或事)”,为可数名词。如:

He was a failure as a teacher, but was really a success as an actor. 他是个不称职的老师,但却的确是一个成功的演员。

Of her plays, three were successes and one was a failure. 她的剧作有三部成功,一部失败。

■disappointment作为抽象名词,其意为“失望”,不可数。如:

Her face showed disappointment. 她脸上现出失望的神情。

但转化为具体名词后,其意为“令人失望的人(事)”,为可数名词。如:

I always felt I was a disappointment to my father. 我总觉得我让父亲失望了。

To tell the truth, the film was a great disappointment to me. 说实在的,那部影片使我大为失望。

■surprise 作为抽象名词,其意为“惊奇”“吃惊”,不可数。如:

His face showed surprise at the news. 他听到这个消息时脸上露出吃惊的神色。

但转化为具体名词后,其意为“使人惊奇的事或东西”,为可数名词。如:

What a surprise to see you here! 真想不到在这里见到你!

We had some unpleasant surprises. 我们得到了一些令人不愉快的意外消息。

■pleasure作为抽象名词,其意为“愉快”“高兴”“快乐”等,不可数。如:

It gave me great pleasure to watch them. 观看它们使我很高兴。

但转化为具体名词后,其意为“一种快乐(荣幸等)”“快乐(荣幸等)的事”,为可数名词。如:

It’s been a pleasure to be able to help you. 能够帮助你是一种荣幸。

It’s such a great pleasure that you are here. 你在这里是非常令人高兴的事。

注:有些抽象名词转化为具体名词而可数时,不是表示“……的人或事”,而是表示“某种类型的……”“不同人或多个人的……”“……的数量”等。如:death作为抽象名词,其意为“死”,不可数。如:

Death comes to all men. 人皆有一死。

Food poisoning can cause death. 食物中毒可导致死亡。

但转化为具体名词后,其意为“某种类型的死”“具体的死亡人数”“不同人或多个人的死亡”等,为可数名词。如:

When we die for the people it is a worthy death. 为人民而死,死得其所。

There have been more deaths from drowning. 溺水死亡人数有所增加。

A bad driver was responsible for their deaths. 他们的死是个技术不佳的司机造成的。